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汉语四大古典小说名著选段英译《红楼梦》选段英译

 

 

1 却说秦氏听宝玉梦中唤他的乳名,心中纳闷,又不好细问。彼时宝玉迷迷惑惑,若有所失,遂起身解怀整衣,袭人过来给他系裤带时,刚伸手至大腿处,只觉冰冷粘湿的一片,吓的慌忙退回手来,问:“是怎么了?”宝玉红了脸,把他的手一捻,袭人本是个聪明女子,年纪又比宝玉大两岁,近来也渐省人事,今见宝玉如此光景,心中便觉察了一半,不觉把个粉脸羞的飞红,遂不好再问。
Translation 1:
Chin Ko-ching was amazed to hear Pao-yu call her childhood name in his dream, but she could hardly question him. As for Pao-yu, he felt as bemused as if he had lost his wits. Attendants promptly brought him a longan decoction and after sipping a couple of mouthfuls he got up to adjust his clothes.
As Hsi-jen reached out to fasten his trousers for him, she touched his thigh and found it cold and sticky. She drew back in alarm and asked what was the matter. Flushing crimson, Pao-yu simply squeezed her hand.
Now Hsi-jen was an intelligent girl, and being a couple of years older than Pao-yu she already knew the facts of life. She guessed from the state he was in what must have happened and blushing herself helped him to tidy his clothes without any further questions.
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(原文一段,译文三段,改变了原文语篇结构,文体正式,衔接自然。原文朦胧地描述了宝玉因梦中做爱而遗精,译文保留了原文的朦胧。)
 
Translation 2:
    Qin-shi was surprised to hear Bao-yu call out her childhood name in his sleep, but did not like to pursue the matter. As she stood wondering, Bao-yu, who was still bemused after his dream and not yet in full possession of his faculties, got out of bed and began to stretch himself and to adjust his clothes, assisted by Aroma. As she was doing up his trousers, her hand, chancing to stray over his thigh, came into contact with something cold and sticky which caused her to draw it back in alarm and ask him if he was all right. Instead of answering, he merely reddened and gave the hand a squeeze.
Aroma had always been an intelligent girl. She was, in any case, a year or two older than Bao-yu and had recently begun to have some understanding of the facts of life. Observing the condition that Bao-yu was in, she therefore had more than an inkling of what had happened. Abandoning her question, she busied herself with his clothes, her cheeks suffused by a crimson blush of embarrassment.
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(原文一段,译文两段,改变了原文的语篇结构;姓名翻译使用了拼音和意译两种手段;局部地方的行文角度与杨氏夫妇的也有所不同。保留了原文的朦胧笔触,但较多地渲染了有关情境。)
 
Translation 3:
On hearing Baoyu calling her milk name, Qin Keqing felt puzzled but was embarrassed to track it down. Dizzy and bewildered, Baoyu felt something had lost. He got up to put his dress right when Xiren came over to help him fasten his trousers. Having reached his thighs, she felt a patch of wet sticky thing on his underwear. Having drawn her hands in hurry, she asked: “What’s the matter?” Blushed, Baoyu pressed her hand with fingers naughtily. Being quick and bright, and two years elder than Baoyu, Xiren recently came to know something about that. On sensing Baoyu in such a state, she guessed it must have been that which had happened to Baoyu. Face reddened all over, she gave up any further questioning.
(译成了一段,人名全用拼音,行文也有别于两种前译,同样保留了原文的朦胧笔触。)
 
2 话说周瑞家的送走了刘姥姥去后,便上来回王夫人话,谁知王夫人不在上房,问丫鬟们,方知往薛姨妈那边说话儿去了。周瑞家的听说便出东角门,过东院,往梨香院来。
 
Translation 1:
After seeing off Granny Liu, Mrs. Chou went to report to Lady Wang. On being told by her maids that their mistress had gone to chat with Aunt Hsueh, she made her way through the east side gate and the east courtyard to Pear Fragrance Court.
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文,意译了梨香院。)
 
Translation 2:
When Zhou Rui’s wife had finished seeing off Grannie Liu, she went to Lady Wang’s place to report. Lady Wang, however, was not in her apartment. The maids said that she had gone off to visit Aunt Xue. Zhou Rui’s wife accordingly went out by the gate in the east corner of the compound, crossed the eastern courtyard, and made her way to Pear Tree Court.
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文紧扣原文,用另一种方式意译了梨香院。)
 
Translation 3:
Having seen off Granny Liu, Mrs. Zhou went to Lady Wang, reporting Granny Liu’s departure, to find that Lady Wang was not in. Asked, the maids informed her that she had gone to Aunt Xue’s for a chat. Then Mrs. Zhou went through the east corner gate, crossed the east yard and went to Lixiang Yard.
(译文紧扣原文,半音半意译了梨香院,遣词造句也较两种前译有所不同。)
 
3 话说宝玉和凤姐回家,见过众人,宝玉回明贾母要约秦钟上家塾之事,自己也有个伴读的朋友,正好发奋;又着实称赞秦钟人品行事,最是可人怜爱的。
 
Translation 1:
After Hsi-feng and Pao-yu reached home and had paid their greetings, Pao-yu told the Lady Dowager of Chin Chung’s eagerness to attend their clan school, and the incentive it would be for him to have a friend and companion in his studies. He painted a glowing picture of the other boy’s admirable character and lovable qualities.
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文基本上紧扣原文,遣词地道,意译贾母。)
 
Translation 2:
When Bao-yu and Xi-feng were back and had seen the others, Bao-yu told Grandmother Jia of his wish to have Qin Zhong admitted to the clan school. He pointed out that a congenial study- companion would stimulate him to greater effort and gave her a glowing account of Qin Zhong’s amiable qualities.
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文紧扣原文意义,遣词造句近似写作,半音半意译了贾母。)
 
Translation 3:
Having returned home with Sister Xifeng and exchanged greetings with the waiting crowd, Baoyu reported to Granny Jia that he would like to invite Qin Zhong to the clan school, saying that with a friend to accompany him, he would make greater endeavors in his studies. In addition, Baoyu praised Qin Zhong for his morality and conducts, and his most lovable personality.
(译文意义紧扣原文,半音半意译贾母,视角完全转到了宝玉身上,较多地注意了自身的衔接与连贯。)
 
4 话说秦邦业父子专候贾家人来送上学之信。原来宝玉急于要和秦钟相遇,遂择了后日一定上学,打发人送了信。到了这天,宝玉起来时,袭人早已把书笔文物收拾停妥,坐在床沿上发闷;见宝玉起来,只得服侍他梳洗。
 
Translation 1:
Chin Yeh and his son did not have long to wait for a message from the Chia family telling them the date on which to start school, for Pao-yu was so eager to be with Chin Chung he could think of nothing else. He sent a servant with a note asking his friend to come to his house in two days’ time, in the morning, to go to school together.
On the day appointed, while Pao-yu was still asleep, Hsi-jen made a neat package of his books and writing materials, then sat down dejectedly on the edge of the kang. When he woke, she helped him with his toilet.
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文意义,将一段原文译成了两段,改变了原文结构。另外,据专家们说,秦钟的父亲在曹雪芹的书稿中本叫秦业,后来由于某种原因改成了秦邦业。)
 
Translation 2:
In the last chapter we left Qin Bang-ye and his son waiting for a message from the Jia household to tell them when Qin Zhong was to begin school. Bao-yu was impatient to see Qin Zhong again and sent word to say that it was to be the day after next.
When the appointed day arrived, Bao-yu rose in the morning to find that Aroma had already got his books, brushes and other writing materials ready for him and was sitting disconsolately on the side of his bed. Seeing him get up, she roused herself and helped him to do his hair and wash.
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(大体与前译相同,人名翻译遵从自己的一贯原则。)
 
Translation 3:
Qin Bangye and his son were awaiting message from the Jia family, informing the son of the date to attend the clan school. Just then Baoyu sent the message, informing them that Qin Zhong was expected to attend the school two days later, for Baoyu was very eager to have Qin Zhong’s company. On the day, Xiren had everything for schooling ready before Baoyu got up. Sitting on the edge of the bed, she felt depressed. However, the moment Baoyu got up, she came to help him with his morning wash.
(译文紧扣原文,未改变原文的意义顺序,较多地注意了自身的衔接与连贯。)
 
5 话说金荣因人多势众,又兼贾瑞勒令赔了不是,给秦钟磕了头,宝玉方才不吵闹了。大家散了学,金荣自己回到家中,越想越气,说:“秦钟不过是贾蓉的小舅子,又不是贾家的子孙,附学读书,也不过和我一样。因他仗着宝玉和他相好,就目中无人。……”
 
Translation 1:
With heavy pressure on him and orders from Chia Jui to apologize, Chin Jung had to appease Pao-yu by kowtowing to Chin Chung. Then school was dismissed and he went home, where the more he brooded the angrier he grew.
“That flunkey Chin Chung is only Chia Jung’s brother-in-law, not a son or grandson of the Chia family,” he fumed. “He’s only in the school on sufferance, just as I am. But on the strength of his friendship with Pao-yu he looks down on everyone else….”
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文意义,将一段原文译成两段,改变了原文的语篇结构,个别地方略嫌拘谨。)
 
Translation 2:
Outnumbered, and hard pressed by Jia Rui to apologize, Jokey Jin made a kotow to Qin Zhong, whereupon Bao-yu agreed to let the matter drop. Back in his own home, when school was over, he brooded with mounting anger on his humiliation.
‘Qin Zhong is Jia Rong’s brother-in-law: it’s not as if he were one of the Jia clan. He’s only an external scholar, the same as me; and it’s only because he is friends with Bao-yu that he can afford to be so high and mighty. …’
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文意义紧扣原文,将一段原文译成两段,改变了原文的语篇结构,半音半意译了金荣;译文第一段连贯性强,第二段具备口语特征。)
 
Translation 3:
Sensing that the other party had a gang of people and Jia Rui compelled him to apologize, Jin Rong apologized and kowtowed to Qin Zhong, having Baoyu appeased. After school and having returned home, Jin Rong got more and more enraged through contemplations, saying: “Being merely a brother-in-law of Jia Rong’s, Qin Zhong is not among any younger generation of the Jia family. Like myself, he is included in the school only by a special permission. With Baoyu standing by his side, he should be so arrogant as to look down upon others. …”
(译文紧扣原文,未改变原文的语篇结构,连贯性强,但直接思维翻译得略带书卷气。)
 
6 话说是贾敬的寿辰,贾珍先将上等好吃的东西,稀奇的果品,装了十六大捧盒,着贾蓉带领家下人与贾敬送去,向贾蓉说道:“你留神看太爷喜欢不喜欢,你就行了礼起来说:‘父亲遵太爷的话,不敢前来,在家里率领合家都朝上行了礼了。’”贾蓉听罢,即率领家人去了。
 
Translation 1:
Chia Ching’s birthday had now arrived. Chia Chen had sixteen large hampers filled with choice delicacies and rare fruit and sent Chia Jung with some servants to deliver them.
“Make sure your grandfather’s agreeable before you pay your respects,” he cautioned his son. “Tell him that in compliance with his wishes I’ve not ventured to go, but I am assembling the whole family here to honor him.”
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文意义,将一段原文译成两段,改变了原文的语篇结构,翻译引语中的引语时也转换了叙事角度。)
 
Translation 2:
Jia Jing’s birthday had now arrived. Cousin Zhen packed sixteen lacquer gift-boxes with the rarest and choicest delicacies and instructed Jia Rong to take a number of domestics with him and deliver them to Jia Jing. He was to observe carefully whether or not his grandfather was pleased, and having made his kowtow, was to deliver the following message:
‘Because of your request, Father has not ventured to visit you himself. Instead he will place himself at the head of the entire family and lead them in prostrating themselves in your direction.’
Having received his father’s instructions, Jia Rong mustered his band of servants and set out.
(Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文紧扣原文意义,将一段原文译成三段,改变了原文的语篇结构,以叙事人的口气翻译了引语,以引语的方式翻译了引语中的引语。)
 
Translation 3:
As Jia Jing’s birthday was drawing near, Jia Zhen packed 16 great gift-boxes with the most delicious foods and rarest fruits and sent Jia Rong with a few servants to deliver them. On Jia Rong’s departure, he said: “Be careful to see whether your grandpa like them or not. Having kowtowed, you would tell your grandpa: ‘Abiding by your order, my father would not dare to come to pay his courtesy. However, he had led the whole family kowtowed at home already.’” Knocking his head, Jia Rong started off with the servants.
(译文紧扣原文,未改变原文的语篇结构,引语和引语中的引语都一如原文。)
 
7 话说熙凤正与平儿说话,只见有人回说:“瑞大爷来了。”凤姐命:“请进来罢。”贾瑞见请,心中暗喜。见了凤姐,满面陪笑,连连问好。凤姐儿也假意殷勤让座让茶。贾瑞见凤姐如此打扮,越发酥倒,因饧了眼问道:“二哥怎么还不回来?”凤姐道:“不知什么缘故。”贾瑞道:“别是路上有人绊了脚,舍不得回来了罢?”
 
Translation 1:
While Hsi-feng was talking to Ping-erh, Chia Jui was announced. She ordered him to be admitted at once.
Overjoyed at being received, he hastened in and greeted her effusively, beaming with smiles. With a show of regard she made him take a seat and offered him tea. The sight of her in informal dress threw him into raptures. Gazing amorously at her he asked:
“Why isn’t Second Brother Lien home yet?”
“I wouldn’t know,” Hsi-feng replied.
“Perhaps he’s been caught by someone and can’t tear himself away?”
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文意义,对话翻译遵从了英语的写作习惯,改变了原文的语篇结构。)
 
Translation 2:
Jia Rui’s arrival was announced while Xi-feng and Patience were still talking about him.
‘Ask him in,’ said Xi-feng.
Hearing that he was to be received, Jia Rui rejoiced inwardly. He came into the room wreathed in smiles and overwhelmed Xi-feng with civilities. With feigned solicitude she pressed him to be seated and to take tea. He became quite ecstatic at the sight of her informal dress.
‘Why isn’t Cousin Lian back yet?’ he asked, staring with fascinated eyes.
‘I don’t know what the reason can be,’ said Xi-feng.
‘Could it be,’ Jia Rui inquired archly, ‘that someone has detained him on his way home and that he can’t tear himself away?’
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文紧扣原文意义,引语和对话的翻译都遵从了英语的写作习惯,大幅度地改变了原文的语篇结构,人名翻译遵从自己的一贯原则。)
 
Translation 3:
Engaged in a chat with Ping’er, Xifeng sensed someone coming to report: “Lord Jia Rui has come.” Sister Xifeng ordered: “Show him in then.” Invited to enter, Jia Rui was pleased at heart. On seeing Sister Xifeng, he extended repeated greetings with ingratiating smiles. With pretentious courtesy, Sister Xifeng offered him a seat and a cup of tea. Sensing Sister Xifeng in casual dress, Jia Rui was even more overwhelmed. Shooting her an amorous glance, he asked: “How on earth the second brother isn’t back yet?” “I am not sure why,” replied she. “Is he attracted by someone on his way and then he could not tear himself away?” asked Jia Rui.
(译文紧扣原文,未改变原文的语篇结构,遣词造句有别于两前译。)
 
8 话说凤姐儿自贾琏送黛玉往扬州去了,心中实在无趣,每到晚间,不过同平儿说笑一回便胡乱睡了。这日夜间和平儿灯下拥炉,早命浓薰绣被,二人睡下,屈指计算行程该到何处,不知不觉已交三鼓。
 
Translation 1:
Hsi-feng found life excessively dull after her husband’s departure with Tai-yu for Yangchow. She passed the evenings as best she could chatting with Ping-erh before retiring listlessly to bed.
One evening, tired of embroidering, she sat nursing her hand-stove by the lamp and told the maid to warm her embroidered quilt early, after which they both went to bed. When the third watch sounded they were still reckoning on their fingers the stage Chia Lien must have reached on his journey.
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文意义,将一段原文译成两段,改变了原文的语篇结构。)
 
Translation 2:
After Jia Lian’s departure for Yangchow Xi-feng felt bored and unhappy, particularly in the evenings when, apart from chatting with Patience, there seemed little to do but sleep. On the occasion of which we write she had sat beside the lamp with Patience until late into the evening; then, the bedding having been well warmed, the two women had gone to bed, where they lay until after midnight discussing the stages of Jia Lian’s journey and attempting to calculate what point he was likely to have reached in it.
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文基本上紧扣原文意义,未改变原文结构,但行文近于写作,对原文细节略有增删。)
 
Translation 3:
Since Jia Lian accompanied Daiyu back to Yangzhou, Sister Xifeng felt quite dull. Every night, engaged with Ping’er in gossip of nonsense, she would go to bed straightly. On that night, with Ping’er, she embraced a hand stove by the dim light. Then she ordered to have her perfumed silk quilt ready earlier than usual and then went to bed with Ping’er, figuring where Jia Lian had reached. But before she knew it, it was the third round of watch already.
(译文紧扣原文,注意了自身的衔接与连贯,译文最后一句与两前译不同,完全贴近原文。)
 
9 话说宁国府中都总管来升闻知府里委请了凤姐,因传齐同事人等说道:“如今请了西府里琏二奶奶管理内事,倘或他来支取东西,或是说话,小心侍侯才好。每日大家早来晚散,宁可辛苦这一个月,过后再歇息,别把老脸面扔了。那是个有名的烈货,脸酸心硬;一时恼了,不认人的!”
 
Translation 1:
When the news that Hsi-feng was to take charge reached Lai Sheng, chief steward of the Ning Mansion, he summoned all his colleagues.
“Madam Chia Lien of the West Mansion is coming to supervise our household,” he told them. “When she asks for things or gives orders, we must be extra careful. Better turn up earlier and leave later every day, working hard this month and resting afterwards, in order not to lose face. You know what a terror she is, sour-faced, hard-hearted and no respecter of persons once she’s angry.”
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文意义紧扣原文,将一段原文译成两段,改变了原文的语篇结构,但引语的翻译略嫌拘谨。)
 
Translation 2:
When Lai Sheng, the Chief Steward of the Ning-guo mansion, learned that Xi-feng had been invited to take on the management of the household, he called his cronies together and addressed them in the following terms:
‘Well lads, it seems that they’ve called in Mrs Lian from the other house to run things here for a bit; so if she should happen to come round asking for anything or have occasion to talk to you about anything, be sure to do what she says, won’t you? During this coming month we shall all have to start work a bit earlier and knock off a bit later than usual. If you’ll put up with a little extra hardship just for this month, we can make up for it by taking things easy when it’s over. Anyway, I’m relying on you not to let me down. She’s well known for a sour-faced, hard-hearted bitch is this one, and once she’s got her back up, she’ll give no quarter, no matter who you are. So be careful.’
    (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译文意义基本上紧扣原文,引语的翻译非常口语化,叙事角度与前译略有不同,使译文更加连贯,主题意义更为鲜明。)
 
Translation 3:
    On hearing that at the invitation, Sister Xifeng would come to manage the family affairs of the Ning Mansion, Lai Sheng, chief steward, gathered all his colleagues and warned them: “At the invitation, Madam Jia Lian will come to manage the family affairs of our mansion. If she asks for things or orders someone to run an errand, be careful to answer her properly. I hope every day you will have to come early and leave late, working hard for the coming month and taking a decent relaxation after that. She is notorious for her quick temper, with a face as cold as cucumber and a heart as hard as stone. She will not mind who you are if she is offended!”
(译文紧扣原文,未改变原文结构,引语翻译略带书卷气。)
 
10 话说宝玉举目见北静王水溶净白簪缨银翅王帽,穿着江牙海水五爪龙白蟒袍,系着碧玉红鞓带;面如美玉,目似明星;真好秀丽人物。
 
Translation 1:
Looking up, Pao-yu saw that the Prince of Peiching had on a princely silver-winged cap with white tassels, a white robe embroidered with zigzag wave patterns and five-clawed dragons, and a red leather belt studded with green jade. With his face fair as jade, his eyes bright as stars, he was truly a handsome figure.
(Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang)
(译文紧扣原文。北静王是在秦可卿出殡的路上搭棚吊唁时接见贾宝玉的,其装束可能与吊唁有关。但原文没有显说,译文也没有显译。)
 
Translation 2:
Looking up, Bao-yu saw that Shui Rong’s princely headgear was embellished by way of mourning with white bands, a white hatpin, and filigree silver ‘wings’. As a further token of mourning his robe, though heavily bordered with a ‘tooth and wave’ design of rainbow-colored stripes and gold-emblazoned with the royal five-clawed dragon, was of a white material. It was confined at the waist by a red leather belt, studded with green jade. The splendid costume, the luminous eyes, the finely chiseled features really did make him an arrestingly handsome young man.
   (Translated by David Hawkes)
(译者将上文中的素服理解为孝服,因而将衣饰上的白颜色当成了吊孝的标记,并如是翻译。为此,译者翻译时部分地改变了原文的意义。)
 
Translation 3:
Having raised his eyes, Baoyu saw that Prince Beijing, named Shuirong, with his face fair as jade and eyes bright as stars, was really a handsome prince in his prince dress: a silver-winged prince cap with white tassels, a white dragon robe with five dragon claws in addition to a zigzagged river and a waving sea, and a red leather belt at the waist studded with green jade.
(译文紧扣原文,但颠倒了原文的意义顺序,遣词造句也有别于杨译。)
 
 
 

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